No Girls Allowed: deja vu all over again
The Second Vatican Council
“The end of the second session of the Second Vatican Council, Cardinal Leo Jozef Suenens of Belgium asked his fellow bishops: “Why are we even discussing the reality of the church when half of the church is not even represented here?”
This provocative question, midway through a council that was then totally male, was a breakthrough that prodded council members to invite a few “token” women to the ensuing sessions.”
The Revision of the Liturgy:
- The Mass would be said in English
- Greater lay participation in the liturgy;
- The altar rail came down
- The altar was turned around and
- The priest faced the community
- The new Roman Missal was issued in 1970, with a new cycle of readings designed to offer a richer selection of Scripture.
- The liturgical calendar was simplified
- The rites for sacraments were revised, emphasizing the communal aspects
- The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RICA) improved
Finally, active ‘Lay People’ – as we were called – were involved in liturgical participation:
- Lay ministries multiplied – Readers and Eucharistic Ministers appeared during Mass.
- Laity were finally represented on parish councils and diocesan boards, and lay men and women, replaced priests in a number of administrative church positions.
The Women at Vatican ii
From November 1, 1986
Sister Mary Luke Tobin (May 16, 1908 – August 24, 2006) was an American Roman Catholic nun and one of only 15 women auditors invited to the Second Vatican Council, and the only Americanwoman of the three women religious permitted to participate on the Council’s planning commissions.
one of 15 women – she commented:
The L. C. W. R. report also described the conditions contributing to the alienation of women from church and society and their consequent need of reconciliation with both groups. Let me outline briefly some of the alienating factors described in the report:
1. Patriarchy has been a prime concept for the perception and organization of reality. Patriarchy as a worldview of its very nature assumes the alienation of women. It places the male in the center of reality and makes the masculine normative.
2. Women have been excluded or minimized in liturgical worship. The exclusion and/or negation of women in liturgy is one of the most demoralizing experiences for women in the church. If one is invisible in liturgy (especially in the Eucharist), one is quite literally displaced or alienated.
3. Through humor, ridicule or metaphor women have been depersonalized. The joke or humorous quip is a powerful tool of dismissal.
4. It is the experience of women that many clergy and hierarchy relate poorly to them.
5. Women are unable to participate fully in ministry. The concentration of women in stereotypical ministry roles opposes the full range of services.
6. Women are excluded from the structures and processes of church polity. Jurisdiction in the Catholic Church is reserved to the ordained. The exercise of power is, by policy, in the hands of men alone. That situation is of its nature unjust. It breeds disdain for women and their gifts and reinforces their invisibility.
7. Although official church positions on such matters as contraception, sterilization and abortion are not of concern to women only, the existential consequences of those positions bear more heavily on women.
8. Support for measures that would benefit women, such as the Equal Rights Amendment, child-care legislation and earnings-sharing legislation, is conspicuously lacking.
The L. C. W. R. report then lists some of the conditions that could bring about reconciliation. Among them are:
1. Women must make their own decisions and claim responsibility for their lives. The movement toward acknowledgment of one’s self as possessing inherent dignity and worth is a powerful factor in reconciliation.
2. New relationships with men must be established. When men acknowledge their complicity in the oppression of women and their own need for liberation and maturation, the process of their relationship to women is itself liberating.
3. Officials of the church must acknowledge that alienation exists. When the men who hold power in the church are willing to admit that the alienation of women is the result of concrete experiences, policies, attitudes and structures, that fact in itself will promote reconciliation.
4. Structural change must address alienating factors. Any structures that allow for the significant involvement of women in decision making at any level contribute to reconciliation because they go beyond the effects to the systemic causes of alienation.
5. The church as institution and its officials must be willing to grapple with painful, conflict-generating topics and situations. The church as institution is perceived as studiously avoiding certain subjects because they “have been settled” in perpetuity.